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Air, water, sunrays, earth, sky all these elements of nature are eternal truth. Every intelligent person knows that they are not unlimited and should be used in a sustainable way. This is a fact and there is nothing like modern or not so modern in it. Even the, western civilization also recognises it and much more aware about environment preservation.
|In India we consider nature as God. We worship plants and it is no superstition. Our ancestors have asked us to do it because they thought this is the best way of preservation of nature.
In modern times we talk about biodiversity but if we look back we will see that it was already there in our scriptures. Only thing is that we do not know because we have not properly read and understood it.
From the beginning, human is dependent on natural resources, but he is not aware of the fact that he has to protect it because natural resources are never unlimited.
Air, water, plants and trees, birds and animals and even insect all the elements of nature are intimately related to each other. Creation is totally dependent on co-operation and co-existence of all these elements. If plants and trees do not make oxygen, existence of all living beings will be in danger. In the same way to trees and plants they get their nutrition from soil. Our basic philosophy is the five elements i.e. Earth, sky, fire, water and air, and whole creation is nothing but these five elements. Tulsidasji has also mentioned in Ramcharita Manas:-
These five elements have created this human body. They are the fundamentals of environment. We also believe that after death also our body assimilates in these five elements.
Experts in bio diversity have divided the land and water bodies into eight geographical division. Division is done according to the geographical area and type of vegetation and plants and animals. Our country falls in Hind. Malay division and some area of Himalayas belong to Peliarctic division. These divisions are again divided in 193 bio geographical areas. One area comprises of same type of plants and animals. India has 12 such areas. Apart from this there are four “Biomes” in India.
When we plan the preservation of a natural area we must take into consideration the bio geographic characteristics of that area. Because every area is different from other. Every state must get 100000 hectare land. Islands must get 10000 hectare land. In 1981, LakshaDweep was the only area where no reservation was done. Coromondal coast and Andaman & Nicobar Island could also not reserve enough land. Indian Wild Life Society has appointed a specialist’s team in 1970. This team has submitted a report that at least 4% land of the country should be reserved for this purpose. Some countries have even reserved 10% part of their land.
In our country Sikkim has reserved 10% land in 1982. In the rest of the country Sanctuaries have been converted into National Parks where visitors are entertained. Pasturage is prohibited. In sanctuaries limited pasturage is allowed. In 22 National Parks there are 8,60,000 hectare and in 184 sanctuaries 8,30,000 hectare land is there. Now we have 32 National Parks. In Bharatpur bird sanctuary there are 350 varieties of birds. Every year new varieties of birds are seen. 120 types of birds stay in the sanctuary making its nest. The animals of 14 villages around the sanctuary are dependent on the grass of this land which has been restricted now.
Our main motto should be to protect environment for the welfare of human being. From white ants to lion everyone knows how to live without doing any harm to other. Modernization has imbalanced the natural components and brought problems on the Earth. If we put lions in zoo it will not be good for us. We have to think in a different way and find better solutions.